Ruby Payne opened the summit with a thought leader session on equity and student achievement in which she touched on the current research on our students (which included homelessness), out of school factors, brain research, and Generation Y characteristics. I was especially struck by the impact of stress on working memory. Short-term working memory is affected negatively and produces a whole set of physical responses. I liked her idea of giving learners three things to do right away—a routine to calm them down. I also wondered about ways to use metaphor stories with high school students.

-Bethanie Tucker